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Dynamic loading stimulates mandibular condyle remodeling

Published:September 22, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejwf.2022.08.002

      Highlights

      • Similar to the bone, condylar cartilage responds and adapts to dynamic loading in vivo.
      • High frequency, low-magnitude load applied through the mandibular molars increases mesenchymal cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation in the condylar cartilage.
      • Dynamic loading stimulates the expression of both chondrogenic and osteogenic markers in condyles.
      • Dynamic loading increases endochondral bone formation and bone density of the condylar process.
      • In response to dynamic load the condylar process lengths.
      • This effect might help regenerate condylar cartilage and enhance or facilitate the correction of mandibular deficiencies when combined with orthopedic appliances.

      ABSTRACT

      Background

      We and others have reported that low-magnitude high-frequency dynamic loading has an osteogenic effect on alveolar bone. Since chondrocytes and osteoblasts originate from the same progenitor cells, we reasoned that dynamic loading may stimulate a similar response in chondrocytes. A stimulating effect could be beneficial for patients with damaged condylar cartilage or mandibular deficiency.

      Methods

      Studies were conducted on growing Sprague-Dawley rats divided into three groups: control, static load, and dynamic load. The dynamic load group received a dynamic load on the lower right molars 5 minutes per day with a 0.3 g acceleration and peak strain of 30 με registered by accelerometer and strain gauge. The static load group received an equivalent magnitude of static force (30 με). The control group did not receive any treatment. Samples were collected at days 0, 28, and 56 for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, microcomputed tomography, and histology and fluorescent microscopy analysis.

      Results

      Our experiments showed that dynamic loading had a striking effect on condylar cartilage, increasing the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes, and promoting chondrocyte maturation. This effect was accompanied by increased endochondral bone formation resulting in lengthening of the condylar process.

      Conclusions

      Low-magnitude, high-frequency dynamic loading can have a positive effect on condylar cartilage and endochondral bone formation in vivo. This effect has the potential to be used as a treatment for regenerating condylar cartilage and to enhance the effect of orthopedic appliances on mandibular growth.

      Keywords

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