Orthodontic root resorption

Published:November 13, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejwf.2021.09.003

      Highlights

      • External apical root resorption caused by orthodontic tooth movement occurs regularly, but severe root shortening is, fortunately, rare.
      • The etiology of root resorption is multifactorial, but apical displacement, treatment duration, and genetics play significant roles.
      • If root resorption is detected during treatment and is moderate to severe, treatment should be stopped for 4 months.
      • Long-term, a tooth with a short root has a very favorable prognosis and need not be extracted and replaced by an implant or other restoration.

      Abstract

      External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the most frequently reported iatrogenic side effects of orthodontic movement. Nevertheless, no robust and unequivocal scientific evidence is yet available in the literature regarding the clinical and biological factors that trigger EARR. The purpose of the present position paper is to provide clinicians, residents, and investigators a summary of our current understanding about root resorption caused by orthodontic tooth movement, based on up-to-date available scientific evidence.
      Morphological, structural, biomechanical, and biological differences account for predisposing the apical third to EARR compared to other root surfaces during orthodontic treatment. In addition, a relevant number of patient and treatment-related factors increase risk of EARR. The main patient-related factors are reviewed and discussed: genetic factors, tooth anatomy, demographic factors, malocclusion factors, previous endodontic treatment, medical history, short root anomaly. Similarly, the influence of treatment-related factors are analyzed with regard to the effect of: biomechanical factors, type of orthodontic appliance, adjunctive therapies to accelerate tooth movement, early treatment, maxillary expansion, teeth extractions, the duration of treatment and the amount of apical displacement. Clinical management of EARR from pre-treatment records to the monitoring strategy as well as recommendations for the post orthodontic-treatment period are presented as a guide for the clinician.
      Despite years of studies, we still do not fully understand EARR, but the future is promising. True three-dimensional imaging with higher resolution and low radiation, and predictive tools towards an earlier detection without radiographs, will mark future developments in the field of EARR in orthodontics.

      Keywords

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