Biphasic theory: breakthrough understanding of tooth movement

Published:August 24, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejwf.2018.08.001

      Highlights

      • A critical look at the literature tooth movement biology
      • Propose a new theory - The Biphasic Theory of Orthodontic Tooth Movement
      • The theory divides tooth movement two phases
      • Initial Catabolic Phase, during which osteoclasts resorb bone at both compression
      • Later Anabolic Phase, which occurs subsequently to restore alveolar bone to its pre-treatment levels

      Abstract

      Background

      Research on the biology of orthodontic tooth movement has led to the prevailing compression-tension theory, which divides the response to orthodontic force into two opposing reactions spatially separated: on the compression side, osteoclasts resorb bone to create space for tooth movement, whereas on the tension side, osteoblasts form bone to restore the alveolar bone structure.

      Methods

      Here we take a critical look at the literature on how force-induced inflammation, the periodontal ligament, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts contribute to the biological reaction to orthodontic force. We introduce new evidence that supports a novel theory to explain the biology of tooth movement—the Biphasic Theory.

      Results

      The Biphasic Theory of Orthodontic Tooth Movement divides tooth movement into the initial Catabolic Phase, during which osteoclasts resorb bone at both compression and tension sites, and the Anabolic Phase, which occurs subsequently to restore alveolar bone to its pretreatment levels.

      Conclusions

      The Biphasic Theory of Tooth Movement successfully addresses shortfalls in the Compression-Tension Theory of Tooth Movement, provides clinicians with a better understanding of how orthodontic forces move teeth, and offers new targets for therapies aimed at accelerating tooth movement.

      Keywords

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