Bonded retainers maintain a high-standard orthodontic treatment outcome long term

Published:April 01, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejwf.2015.02.004

      Abstract

      Background

      Numerous studies have demonstrated deterioration of orthodontic treatment outcome postretention; however, few studies present results in cases still in retention long term. The aim of the present study was to evaluate orthodontic treatment outcomes in patients with teeth still in retention at 10 years post-treatment.

      Methods

      This longitudinal study enrolled 108 children who received bonded lingual retainers after treatment with a full fixed appliance. Retainer extension and morphologic stability, as measured by weighted peer assessment ratings (wPAR), were recorded at pretreatment (t0), immediately post-treatment (t1), 5 years post-treatment (t5), and 10 years post-treatment (t10). The t10 results were compared with those from an untreated control group matched on age and sex. Post-treatment stability was additionally tested for correlation to age, sex, malocclusion, and extraction therapy.

      Results

      At the group level, there was a significant mean reduction in wPAR of 74% at t10 (P < 0.001). Additionally, the mean wPAR was significantly better than was that in the control group. At the patient level, 57% of patients were categorized as “greatly improved.” The only factor that could be correlated to post-treatment changes (from t1 to t10) was the presence of at least one bonded retainer (P < 0.05).

      Conclusion

      A “high standard orthodontic treatment outcome” could be maintained 10 years post-treatment by keeping the bonded retainers in both the upper and lower arches. Orthodontic patients expect the aesthetics to be maintained over time. The results from this study, that bonded lingual retainers maintain the orthodontic treatment result for 10 years, are valuable information for the clinician when giving the patients advice and recommendations regarding retainer maintenance.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Little R.M.
        • Riedel R.A.
        • Artun J.
        An evaluation of changes in mandibular anterior alignment from 10 to 20 years postretention.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1988; 93: 423-428
        • Reitan K.
        Tissue rearrangement during retention of orthodontically rotated teeth.
        Angle Orthod. 1959; 29: 105-113
        • Thilander B.
        Orthodontic relapse versus natural development.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000; 117: 562-563
        • Bondemark L.
        • Holm A.K.
        • Hansen K.
        • et al.
        Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment and patient satisfaction. A systematic review.
        Angle Orthod. 2007; 77: 181-191
        • Al Yami E.A.
        • Kuijpers-Jagtman A.M.
        • van’t Hof M.A.
        Stability of orthodontic treatment outcome: follow-up until 10 years postretention.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999; 115: 300-304
        • Lagerström L.
        • Fornell A.C.
        • Stenvik A.
        Outcome of a scheme for specialist orthodontic care, a follow-up study in 31-year-olds.
        Swed Dent J. 2011; 35: 41-47
        • Otuyemi O.D.
        • Jones S.P.
        Long-term evaluation of treated class II division 1 malocclusions utilizing the PAR index.
        Br J Orthod. 1995; 22: 171-178
        • Booth F.A.
        • Edelman J.M.
        • Proffit W.R.
        Twenty-year follow-up of patients with permanently bonded mandibular canine-to-canine retainers.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008; 133: 70-76
        • Richmond S.
        • Shaw W.C.
        • Roberts C.T.
        • Andrews M.
        The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating): methods to determine outcome of orthodontic treatment in terms of improvement and standards.
        Eur J Orthod. 1992; 14: 180-187
        • Ades A.G.
        • Joondeph D.R.
        • Little R.M.
        • Chapko M.K.
        A long-term study of the relationship of third molars to changes in the mandibular dental arch.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990; 97: 323-335
        • de Freitas M.R.
        • Beltrao R.T.
        • Janson G.
        • Henriques J.F.
        • Cancado R.H.
        Long-term stability of anterior open bite extraction treatment in the permanent dentition.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004; 125: 78-87
        • Haruki T.
        • Little R.M.
        Early versus late treatment of crowded first premolar extraction cases: postretention evaluation of stability and relapse.
        Angle Orthod. 1998; 68: 61-68
        • Little R.M.
        • Riedel R.A.
        • Engst E.D.
        Serial extraction of first premolars—postretention evaluation of stability and relapse.
        Angle Orthod. 1990; 60: 255-262
        • McReynolds D.C.
        • Little R.M.
        Mandibular second premolar extraction—postretention evaluation of stability and relapse.
        Angle Orthod. 1991; 61: 133-144
        • Surbeck B.T.
        • Artun J.
        • Hawkins N.R.
        • Leroux B.
        Associations between initial, posttreatment, and postretention alignment of maxillary anterior teeth.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998; 113: 186-195
        • El-Mangoury N.H.
        Orthodontic relapse in subjects with varying degrees of anteroposterior and vertical dysplasia.
        Am J Orthod. 1979; 75: 548-561
        • Uhde M.D.
        • Sadowsky C.
        • BeGole E.A.
        Long-term stability of dental relationships after orthodontic treatment.
        Angle Orthod. 1983; 53: 240-252
        • Ormiston J.P.
        • Huang G.J.
        • Little R.M.
        • Decker J.D.
        • Seuk G.D.
        Retrospective analysis of long-term stable and unstable orthodontic treatment outcomes.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005; 128: 568-574