Research| Volume 3, ISSUE 3, P102-105, September 2014

Repeated bracket bonding: Conventional or self-etching primer?

  • Thorsten Grünheid
    Corresponding author: University of Minnesota, Division of Orthodontics, 6-320 Moos Health Science Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
    Assistant Professor, Division of Orthodontics, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Search for articles by this author
  • Brent E. Larson
    Associate Professor and Director, Division of Orthodontics, University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Search for articles by this author



      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated bonding using a conventional primer (CP) or a self-etching primer (SEP) on the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic brackets.


      A total of 144 human premolars were divided into two equal-sized groups and bonded with metal brackets using a CP in one group and an SEP in the other group. The SBS and ARI were determined after bracket debonding using a universal testing machine. Each group of premolars was then further divided into two equal-sized subgroups, which were bonded with new brackets using a CP in one subgroup and an SEP in the other subgroup. Again, the SBS and ARI were determined. Differences in SBS and ARI between the groups and among the subgroups were tested for statistical significance.


      During the first debonding sequence, the mean SBS values were 10.60 and 10.13 MPa in the CP and SEP groups, respectively. During the second debonding sequence, the mean SBS values ranged from 10.37 to 11.39 MPa. Most or all adhesive remained on the tooth after bracket debonding. There were no statistically significant differences in SBS or ARI between the first and second debonding sequences, between the groups, or among the subgroups.


      With regard to SBS and ARI, SEPs perform as well as CPs for repeated bracket bonding.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of the World Federation of Orthodontists
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Millett D.T.
        • McCluskey L.A.
        • McAuley F.
        • Creanor S.L.
        • Newell J.
        • Love J.
        A comparative clinical trial of a compomer and a resin adhesive for orthodontic bonding.
        Angle Orthod. 2000; 70: 233-240
        • Ewing M.
        Bond failure in clinical practice.
        Aust Orthod J. 2009; 25: 128-135
        • Carlson S.K.
        • Johnson E.
        Bracket positioning and resets: five steps to align crowns and roots consistently.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; 119: 76-80
        • Proffit W.R.
        • Fields Jr., H.W.
        • Sarver D.M.
        Contemporary Orthodontics.
        5th ed. Elsevier Mosby, St. Louis2012
        • Jassem H.A.
        • Retief D.H.
        • Jamison H.C.
        Tensile and shear strengths of bonded and rebonded orthodontic attachments.
        Am J Orthod. 1981; 79: 661-668
        • Egan F.
        • Alexander S.
        • Cartwright G.
        Bond strength of rebonded orthodontic brackets.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1996; 109: 64-70
        • Ireland A.J.
        • Sherriff M.
        Use of an adhesive resin for bonding orthodontic brackets.
        Eur J Orthod. 1994; 16: 27-34
        • Bishara S.E.
        • Laffoon J.F.
        • VonWald L.
        • Warren J.J.
        The effect of repeated bonding on the shear bond strength of different orthodontic adhesives.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002; 121: 521-525
        • Retief D.H.
        A comparative study of three etching solutions. Effects on contact angle, rate of etching and tensile bond strength.
        J Oral Rehabil. 1974; 1: 381-390
        • Vicente A.
        • Bravo L.A.
        • Romero M.
        • Ortiz A.J.
        • Canteras M.
        Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primers.
        Am J Dent. 2005; 18: 256-260
        • Davari A.R.
        • Yassaei S.
        • Daneshkazemi A.R.
        • Yosefi M.H.
        Effect of different types of enamel conditioners on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets.
        J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007; 8: 36-43
        • Kitayama S.
        • Nikaido T.
        • Ikeda M.
        • Foxton R.M.
        • Tagami J.
        Enamel bonding of self-etch and phosphoric acid-etch orthodontic adhesive systems.
        Dent Mater J. 2007; 26: 135-143
        • Gittner R.
        • Müller-Hartwich R.
        • Jost-Brinkmann P.-G.
        Influence of various storage media on shear bond strength and enamel fracture when debonding ceramic brackets: An in vitro study.
        Semin Orthod. 2010; 16: 49-54
        • Fox N.A.
        • McCabe J.F.
        • Buckley J.G.
        A critique of bond strength testing in orthodontics.
        Br J Orthod. 1994; 21: 33-43
        • Årtun J.
        • Bergland S.
        Clinical trials with crystal growth conditioning as an alternative to acid-etch enamel pretreatment.
        Am J Orthod. 1984; 85: 333-340
        • Keizer S.
        • ten Cate J.M.
        • Arends J.
        Direct bonding of orthodontic brackets.
        Am J Orthod. 1976; 69: 318-327
        • Holzmeier M.
        • Schaubmayr M.
        • Dasch W.
        • Hirschfelder U.
        A new generation of self-etching adhesives: comparison with traditional acid-etch technique.
        J Orofac Orthop. 2008; 69: 78-93
        • Montasser M.A.
        • Drummond J.L.
        • Evans C.A.
        Rebonding of orthodontic brackets. Part I, a laboratory and clinical study.
        Angle Orthod. 2008; 78: 531-536
        • Montasser M.A.
        • Drummond J.L.
        • Roth J.R.
        • Al-Turki L.
        • Evans C.A.
        Rebonding of orthodontic brackets. Part II, an XPS and SEM study.
        Angle Orthod. 2008; 78: 537-544
        • Hajrassie M.K.
        • Khier S.E.
        In-vivo and in-vitro comparison of bond strengths of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel and debonded at various times.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007; 131: 384-390
        • Pickett K.L.
        • Sadowsky P.L.
        • Jacobson A.
        • Lacefield W.
        Orthodontic in vivo bond strength: comparison with in vitro results.
        Angle Orthod. 2001; 71: 141-148
        • Bishara S.E.
        • VonWald L.
        • Laffoon J.F.
        • Warren J.J.
        The effect of repeated bonding on the shear bond strength of a composite resin orthodontic adhesive.
        Angle Orthod. 2000; 70: 435-441
        • Scougall-Vilchis R.J.
        • Saku S.
        • Kotake H.
        • Yamamoto K.
        Influence of different self-etching primers on the bond strength of orthodontic lingual buttons.
        Eur J Orthod. 2010; 32: 561-566
        • Buyukyilmaz T.
        • Usumez S.
        • Karaman A.I.
        Effect of self-etching primers on bond strength–are they reliable?.
        Angle Orthod. 2003; 73: 64-70
        • Buonocore M.G.
        • Matsui A.
        • Gwinnett A.J.
        Penetration of resin dental materials into enamel surfaces with reference to bonding.
        Arch Oral Biol. 1968; 13: 61-70
        • Diedrich P.
        Enamel alterations from bracket bonding and debonding: a study with the scanning electron microscope.
        Am J Orthod. 1981; 79: 500-522
        • Cal-Neto J.P.
        • Miguel J.A.
        Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the bonding mechanism of a self-etching primer on enamel.
        Angle Orthod. 2006; 76: 132-136
        • Perry A.C.
        Rebonding brackets.
        J Clin Orthod. 1980; 14: 850-854